Critical Study of
Commodity's Exchange and Profit's Source
Abstract and Table
In this study, it is found that the
essential motive of exchanging of commodities is not to get the things
needed, but to save labor.
Anyone can get the thing that he needs by producing it himself, only
when the exchanging can save his labor or cut his cost, he chooses
exchanging with other people.
For the things too complicated to be produced oneself, we can think
the labor time needed for him to produce them is infinity, so exchanging
also saves labor.
Therefore, Karl Marx' basic idea of "exchanging with the same value
of labor" is no longer true, and in the other hand, "selling dear"
(the price higher than the value of labor needed in the production
of the commodities) is totally acceptable. The capitalist can get
profit by selling dear.
Although the price is higher than the value of labor needed in production,
but because specialized large scale production greatly reduces the
value of labor needed, the buyers of the commodities can still save
great amount of labor (please see below).
the value of labor needed in large scale production (L1)
is smaller than price (P)
and the P is lower than the value of labor needed in possible small
amount production by consumer (L2)
i.e., L1 < P < L2
the producer can get profit amounting P minus L1 (P - L1)
the buyer can save labor amounting L2 minus P (L2 - P)
Obviously, this kind of profit is not the result of exploiting the
Marx' theory of surplus value says that all of the profit (100 percent)
of the capitalists comes from exploitation. This studies show this
theory is wrong.
Above conclusion is supported by other studies in the book, such as
machines can labor and produce value in the place of human being,
taking the risks in the production is also a sort of human labor --
mental labor, the value produced of an enterprise is in direct proportion
with its productivity, and so on.
The study does not deny the existence of exploitation, it does prove
that there are non-exploitation ways for capitalists to get their
The first edition of the book A Critical Study of Das Kapital, has
been available in internet, in simplified Chinese (GB coded) and in
traditional Chinese (Big 5 coded), in the web address: www.nows.com/z
since January 2000.
And the second edition of the
book was published in Taibei in traditional Chinese characters in
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Critical Study of
Das Kapital by
Table of contents
The essential motive of commodity exchanging is saving labor, not geting the things the exchangers do not have before the exchanging
It is impossible to determine the proportion of exchanging with only one factor: the labor time needed in productions
The subjective factors, such as the evaluation to the different kinds of labor and the degrees of imminency to the commodities, finally determines the proportion of exchanging
There is not contravention in the general formula of capital
Commodities can be steady sold dear in long-term. "Consumers' reward" is one of the non-exploitation sources of the profit of capital
The surplus time of labor of workers may be negative
Materialized labors can labor in the place of human being, they can produce value too
The total amount of the value produced by an enterprise is in direct proportion with its productivity
There might be non-productive labor. Bearing of risks is also a kind of labor which is necessary in commodity production. The third kind of human labor -- mental labor
Capital itself is productive. It produces value too.
Keeping an equilibrium between the Left and the Right
The author's e-mail:
Address: School of Communication, East China Normal University
No.3663 Zhong Shan Bei Road, Putuo District, Shanghai, China (200062)
A Critical Study of Das Kapital
by Huang ji